Gum disease is identified by inflammation and infection of the tissues around the teeth, leading to potential tooth loss if not treated. At Washington Dental in Carson, we understand the importance of early detection, personalized treatment plans, and comprehensive care when it comes to gum disease. With our team of experienced general dentists and advanced treatment options, we can help you achieve and maintain optimal oral health.

An Overview of Gum Disease

Gum disease, medically referred to as periodontal illness, is a widespread oral health condition that impacts the gum and the supportive structures around the teeth. It is a progressive condition that, if left untreated, can lead to tooth loss and other serious complications. Understanding gum disease basics is crucial for early detection, prevention, and proper management.

Gum disease typically starts with the buildup of plaque, which is a sticky film composed of bacteria, food particles, and saliva. Plaque forms along the gum line and teeth, and failure to have it effectively removed through regular brushing and flossing can make it harden into tartar or calculus. Tartar provides a rough surface where bacteria can thrive, leading to inflammation and infection of the gums.

Causes and Risk Factors of Gum Disease

Gum illness can be caused by various factors, and certain individuals may be more prone to developing the condition. Understanding the causes and risk factors associated with gum disease can help individuals take proactive measures to prevent its onset or seek appropriate treatment when necessary. They include:

  • Poor oral hygiene — Poor oral hygiene, such as improper brushing as well as flossing, can cause the buildup of tartar and plaque, leading to gum disease.
  • Bacterial infection — Gum diseases are primarily caused by bacteria present in dental plaque. When plaque is not effectively removed from the gums and teeth, the bacteria multiply, leading to inflammation and infection of the gums.
  • Smoking and tobacco use — Tobacco use, including smoking cigarettes or cigars and using smokeless tobacco products, substantially increases the likelihood of developing gum disease. Smoking can weaken your immune system, making it harder for the body to fight off infection, and it also restricts blood from flowing to the gum, hindering its ability to heal.
  • Hormonal changes — The gums can become more sensitive and prone to inflammation due to fluctuations in hormone levels, which commonly occur during pregnancy, puberty, and menopause. This increased vulnerability can increase the spread of gum infection.
  • Diabetes — Individuals with diabetes are at a higher risk of developing gum disease due to the impaired ability to regulate blood sugar levels. Elevated blood sugar levels can increase the likelihood of bacterial growth and compromise the body's ability to fight infections.
  • Genetic predisposition — Some individuals may have a genetic predisposition to developing gum disease. Certain genetic variations can affect the immune response and increase the vulnerability of the gums to infection and inflammation.
  • Medications — Certain medications, like immunosuppressants, anticonvulsants, as well as oral contraceptives, can raise the risk of developing gum disease. These medications can affect the flow of saliva and alter the oral microbiome, making the gums more prone to infection.
  • Systemic diseases — Chronic conditions like heart disease, respiratory disease, and rheumatoid arthritis have been linked to an increased risk of developing gum disease. The connection between systemic diseases and gum disease is thought to be related to inflammation and immune system dysregulation.
  • Poor nutrition — Meals deficient in essential nutrients like vitamin C are likely to compromise your immune system as well as impact your gum health negatively. Inadequate nutrition can compromise the body's ability to resist infections and sustain healthy gums.
  • Teeth misalignment and dental restorations — Crooked teeth, misaligned bites, and dental restorations that do not fit properly can make it difficult to clean the teeth effectively, leading to an increased risk of developing gum disease.

Signs & Symptoms of Gum Disease

Gum disease can manifest through various symptoms. Recognizing these indications is essential for early detection and seeking appropriate dental care. Below are some of the indications you might be suffering from gum illness:

Redness and Swelling

Healthy gums should appear pink and firm. In the early stages of gum illness, the gums may become red, swollen, and tender. This inflammation is a result of the body's immune response to the bacteria present in dental plaque.

Bleeding Gums

One of the most noticeable signs of gum disease is bleeding gums, particularly when brushing, eating, or flossing. Healthy gums should not bleed during routine oral hygiene practices. The bleeding occurs due to the inflammation and weakening of gum tissues.

Gum Recession

As gum disease progresses, the gum starts to recede or pull away from the teeth. This can make the teeth look longer than usual and expose the sensitive root surfaces. Gum recession is a significant sign of advanced gum disease and requires immediate attention.

Continuous Bad Breath (Halitosis)

Chronic bad breath which persists despite oral hygiene measures, such as brushing, flossing, and using mouthwash, can be an indication of gum illness. The bacterial infection and decaying food particles associated with gum disease can contribute to persistent halitosis.

Gum Sensitivity

If your gums become sensitive to pressure, touch, or temperature, it could be an indication of gum infection. Healthy gums should not be overly sensitive or painful.

Shifting or Loose Teeth

As gum disease advances, the infection can target and damage the supportive structures that hold the teeth in place, including the bone. This can lead to tooth mobility, making the teeth feel loose or creating a shifting sensation when chewing.

Changes in Bite

Gum disease can cause changes in the alignment of the teeth, leading to an altered bite. If you realize a change in how your teeth grind when biting or if you experience discomfort while eating, it may be indicative of gum infection.

Pus Formation

In more advanced cases of gum disease, the infection may result in pus pockets in the middle of teeth and gums. Pus is an indication of an active infection and you should seek dental attention immediately.

How is Gum Disease Diagnosed?

Gum disease is diagnosed through a combination of a visual examination, a review of your dental and medical history, and various diagnostic tests. Here are the common methods used for diagnosing gum disease:

Visual Examination

During a dental check-up, your dentist or periodontist will visually inspect your gums for signs of inflammation, such as redness, swelling, and bleeding. They will also check for other symptoms, including receding gums, pockets forming between the teeth and gums, and signs of plaque and tartar buildup.

Probing and Measuring Pocket Depth

Using a periodontal probe, the dentist or hygienist will measure the depth of the spaces (periodontal pockets) between your teeth and gums. Healthy gums usually have shallow pocket depths, while deeper pockets may indicate the presence of gum disease.


Dental X-rays may be taken to evaluate the health of your teeth and jawbone. X-rays can help identify any bone loss or changes in the bone structure caused by advanced gum disease.

Gum Tissue Examination

In some cases, a small sample of gum tissue may be taken for further analysis. This procedure called a biopsy, can help determine the severity and type of gum disease present.

Dental History and Symptoms Review

Your dentist will discuss your dental and medical history, as well as any symptoms you may be experiencing, such as bad breath, loose teeth, or gum sensitivity. This information can provide additional clues for diagnosing gum disease.

Non-Surgical Treatment Options for Gum Disease

Non-surgical treatment options for gum disease are employed in the early stages of the condition (gingivitis) or as a first-line approach to manage mild to moderate cases of periodontitis. These treatments aim to control infection, reduce inflammation, and promote gum tissue healing. Below are some non-surgical treatment options for gum disease:

Professional Dental Cleaning

Also referred to as scaling & root planing, this procedure involves deep cleaning performed by a dental hygienist or dentist. It involves the removal of tartar (hardened plaque) from above as well as under the gum line. The process includes scaling, which involves scraping off the deposits, plus root planing, which smooths the tooth roots to discourage further plaque buildup and help the gums reattach to the teeth.

Antibacterial Mouthwash or Oral Rinse

Your dentist may prescribe or recommend an antimicrobial mouthwash containing ingredients like chlorhexidine to help control bacterial growth and reduce inflammation in the gums. It is used as a complement to regular oral hygiene practices.

Antibiotic Therapy

At times, antibiotics may be prescribed to target and eliminate bacteria causing gum disease. They may be taken orally or applied directly to the affected area in the form of gels, chips, or microspheres.

Lifestyle Changes

Certain lifestyle factors like smoking and poor nutrition can worsen gum disease. Quitting smoking and adopting a balanced diet rich in nutrients can improve gum health and aid in the treatment process.

Surgical Solutions for Advanced Gum Disease

In cases of advanced gum disease (periodontitis) where non-surgical treatments are insufficient to cure the infection, surgical intervention may be necessary. Surgical solutions aim to remove deep-seated plaque and tartar, reduce pocket depths, regenerate lost bone and gum tissue, and restore the health of the affected area. Here are some common surgical treatments for advanced gum disease:

Flap Surgery (Pocket Reduction Surgery)

This procedure involves lifting the gum tissue to access the root surfaces of the teeth and remove tartar deposits. The dentist or periodontist will then reshape the bone if necessary to reduce pocket depths and make it easier to maintain great oral hygiene. The gum tissue is repositioned and sutured back in place, allowing for better attachment and healing.

Soft Tissue Grafts

In cases where gum recession has occurred due to advanced gum disease, soft tissue grafts may be performed. Healthy gum tissue is taken from another part of the mouth or a donor source and grafted onto the affected area to cover exposed tooth roots and improve the appearance of the gums.

Bone Grafting

When periodontitis leads to significant bone loss around the teeth, bone grafting may be necessary to regenerate and rebuild the damaged bone. Bone grafts, either natural or synthetic, are placed in the affected areas to stimulate new bone growth and provide a stable foundation for the teeth.

Guided Tissue Regeneration

This procedure is performed in conjunction with flap surgery and involves placing a barrier membrane between the gum tissue and the bone. The membrane prevents the gum tissue from growing into the bone area, allowing the bone to regenerate while gum tissues reattach to the tooth root.

Bone Surgery

In certain cases, irregularities in the bone structure caused by advanced gum disease may need to be smoothed or reshaped. Bone surgery can help eliminate rough surfaces and promote gum tissue reattachment.

Dental Implants

If tooth loss has occurred due to advanced gum disease, dental implants may be considered a restorative option. Implants provide a strong foundation for replacement teeth and can help regain oral function and aesthetics.

Importance of Early Detection and Treatment

Early detection and treatment of gum disease are crucial for several reasons:

Prevention of Progression

Gum disease, if left untreated, can worsen over time. It typically starts with gingivitis, which is the inflammation of the gums. However, if not addressed, it can progress to periodontitis, a more severe form of gum disease that can lead to tooth loss and damage to the underlying bone structure. Early detection allows for timely intervention and prevents the disease from advancing.

Minimization of Damage

By catching gum disease early, you can minimize the extent of damage to your gums, teeth, and supporting tissues. Prompt treatment can help prevent the formation of deep pockets between the gums and teeth, reduce bone loss, and preserve overall oral health.

Improved Treatment Outcomes

Treating gum disease in its early stages is generally more straightforward and less invasive compared to advanced cases. Early intervention often involves non-surgical approaches, such as professional dental cleanings, improved oral hygiene practices, and antimicrobial treatments. These interventions can be highly effective in reversing the early signs of gum disease and preventing further complications.

Preservation of Teeth and Oral Function

Gum disease is a leading cause of tooth loss in adults. By addressing the disease early on, you increase the chances of preserving your natural teeth. Maintaining your natural teeth is not only important for aesthetics but also for proper chewing, speech, and overall oral function.

Maintenance and Follow-Up Care for Gum Disease

Maintenance and follow-up care are essential for managing gum disease and preventing its recurrence after treatment. Here are some important aspects of maintenance and follow-up care for gum disease:

Oral Hygiene Practices

Maintaining good oral hygiene is crucial for preventing the progression of gum disease. Brush your teeth twice a day using a soft-bristled toothbrush and fluoride toothpaste. Clean between your teeth daily using dental floss, interdental brushes, or water flossers. Follow proper brushing and flossing techniques as instructed by your dentist or dental hygienist.

Regular Dental Check-ups

Schedule regular check-ups with your dentist or periodontist. These visits allow for professional monitoring of your gum health and early detection of any signs of gum disease recurrence. Your dentist will assess your oral health, perform a thorough examination, and provide necessary treatments, such as professional cleanings or further interventions, as needed.

Professional Dental Cleanings

Professional dental cleanings, also known as prophylaxis, should be performed at regular intervals recommended by your dental professional. These cleanings help remove plaque, tartar, and bacteria that may accumulate even with diligent at-home oral care. Professional cleanings also allow the dentist or dental hygienist to assess your gum health and identify any areas that require additional attention.

Periodontal Maintenance

If you have a history of gum disease, your dentist or periodontist may recommend periodontal maintenance cleanings. These specialized cleanings are typically performed every three to four months and involve a thorough removal of plaque and tartar from above and below the gum line. Periodontal maintenance visits also allow for ongoing monitoring of your gum health and early detection of any signs of disease recurrence.

Lifestyle Modifications

Certain lifestyle factors can impact gum health. Quitting smoking or tobacco use is crucial as smoking increases the risk and severity of gum disease. Adopting a healthy diet rich in fruits, vegetables, and whole grains while limiting sugary foods and drinks can also contribute to gum health.

Preventive Measures to Protect Your Gums

Preventive measures play a vital role in protecting your gums and preventing the onset of gum disease. Here are some key preventive measures you can take to maintain gum health:

Maintain Good Oral Hygiene

Brush your teeth at least twice a day using a soft-bristled toothbrush and fluoride toothpaste. Pay attention to brushing along the gum line and gently clean your tongue. Additionally, clean between your teeth daily using dental floss, interdental brushes, or water flossers to remove plaque and debris from areas a toothbrush may not reach.

Use an Antimicrobial Mouthwash

Incorporate an antimicrobial mouthwash into your oral hygiene routine. Look for mouthwashes containing ingredients such as chlorhexidine, which can help reduce bacteria and control gum inflammation. However, it's important to follow the instructions provided and consult your dentist for appropriate usage.

Adopt a Balanced Diet

Proper nutrition plays a role in gum health. Include a variety of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, lean proteins, and dairy products in your diet. Limit your consumption of sugary foods and drinks, as they can contribute to plaque buildup and increase the risk of gum disease.

Avoid Tobacco Use

Smoking and tobacco use are significant risk factors for gum disease. Quitting smoking or avoiding tobacco products altogether can have a positive impact on your gum health and overall oral health.

Visit Your Dentist Regularly

Regular dental check-ups and professional cleanings are essential for maintaining gum health. Your dentist can detect early signs of gum disease, provide necessary treatments, and offer guidance on proper oral hygiene practices.

Manage Stress

Chronic stress can weaken your immune system, making you susceptible to gum disease. Incorporate stress management techniques into your daily routine, such as exercise, meditation, deep breathing exercises, or engaging in hobbies and activities you enjoy.

Protect Teeth from Injury

Trauma or injury to the teeth can contribute to gum problems. Take precautions to protect your teeth during sports activities by wearing mouthguards or using appropriate protective gear.

Be Aware of Medication Side Effects

Some medications can affect gum health as a side effect. If you are taking any medications, inform your dentist, as they can provide guidance and recommendations to minimize any potential impact on your gums.

Complications of Untreated Gum Disease

Untreated gum disease can have several serious complications that extend beyond oral health. It is essential to address gum disease promptly to prevent the following complications:

  • Tooth loss — Advanced gum disease can lead to the destruction of the supporting structures of the teeth, including the gum tissue, periodontal ligament, and bone. As a result, teeth may become loose and eventually require extraction or may fall out on their own.
  • Gum recession — Gum disease can cause the gums to recede, exposing the tooth roots. This can lead to tooth sensitivity, increased risk of tooth decay on the exposed roots, and aesthetic concerns.
  • Bone Loss — The inflammation caused by gum disease can result in the loss of bone supporting the teeth. As bone loss progresses, it can weaken the jawbone and compromise the stability of the remaining teeth.
  • Abscesses — Gum disease can lead to the formation of periodontal abscesses, which are pockets of pus that develop within the gums. Abscesses are painful and can cause further damage to the surrounding tissues if not treated promptly.
  • Tooth Misalignment or Changes in Bite — As gum disease progresses and bone loss occurs, it can affect the alignment of the teeth and bite. Teeth may shift, leading to bite problems and potential difficulties with chewing and speaking.
  • Oral Infections — The inflamed gum tissue in gum disease can act as a gateway for bacteria to enter the bloodstream, increasing the risk of oral infections such as oral thrush or candidiasis.

Find a Periodontist Near Me

If you suspect or have been diagnosed with gum disease, we encourage you to seek treatment as soon as possible. At Washington Dental in Carson, we use a patient-centered approach, providing thorough examinations, accurate diagnoses, and personalized treatment plans tailored to meet each individual's needs. Contact us today at 310-217-1507.